The roles of ethics in waqf managment
The Waqf (endowment) is one of the practices prescribed by Islam. It offers considerable advantages to the founder of waqf as well as to the beneficiaries. Therefore, goods governed by the waqf must be managed ethically to ensure that everyone can benefit from them.
INTRODUCTION TO WAQF
The practice of entrusting goods under the waqf is a response to the call of Allah (Exalted be He) and the Prophet Mohamed (prayers and blessings be upon him) to Muslims. Waqf is a form of worship to get closer to Allah (Exalted be He) by bequeathing goods for the benefit of the public, especially Muslims. Mosques, hospitals, schools, and cemeteries are generally built on waqf properties. Therefore, the founder of waqf (the donor) is promised an interrupted reward, according to the word of Allah (Exalted be He):
Who is the one who will lend God a right loan? For (God) will multiply it to his credit, and he will have (in addition) a liberal reward. (Quran 57, verse 11)
The parable of those who spend their substance in the way of God is that of a grain of wheat: it has seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. God gives increased multiplication to whomever He wants: And God takes care of all, and He knows all things. “(Koran 2, verse 261)
A Hadith of Prophet Mohamed (prayers and blessings on him) also teaches us:
Abou Houreïra (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and blessings be upon him)
said, “When Adam’s son dies, his works stop earning him rewards, except three: permanent alms, a useful science he taught, and a pious child who prays for him!” (Reported by Muslim)
The waqf is defined as a direct or indirect form of donation of property in which the latter is restricted, and its advantage is only applicable for general or specific charitable purposes. It means that the rights of the founder of waqf towards property are restricted from any type of commercial transaction, inheritance. Any kind of income or profit derived from property under waqf must also be spent for welfare general or specific with the intention of the founder to be closer to Allah (Exalted be He). Consequently, the property no longer belongs to the owner, cannot be returned to the former owner and cannot be owned by anyone.
The advantages contained in this act of worship:
- Express obedience to Allah (Exalted be He).
- Draw near to Allah (Exalted be He).
- Acquire a constant reward in life and after death.
- Build facilities such as mosques and schools
- Eliminate the problem of poverty in the community
- Strengthen the unity of society.
- Contribute to the development of the socio-economy of the community.
To realize the huge advantages and benefits of the waqf, each property entrusted must be governed and administered with the utmost excellence to bring the expected result of the founder.
The waqf’s management is defined as the modification of the use of waqf assets, from consumption to production, so that these assets can continue to generate returns for the future for the benefit of waqf beneficiaries. It covers several subjects such as the waqf procedure, the registration of waqf assets, the development and monitoring of waqf assets, and the management of waqf benefits for its beneficiaries.
Initially, the founder managed the waqf by himself or administered by the head of the local society officially involved in religious activities, such as the qadi, the imam, the village chief, or the mosque committee. These leaders were elected by the local society to manage the property donated on their behalf.
The function of the administrators of the waqf includes different stages of land management of the Waqf
- Prepare a standard guideline for the manager on aspects of waqf land.
- Improve the efficiency of waqf land management.
Registration of new waqf lands.
- Coordinate and order the registration of waqf lands.
- Coordinate the availability of waqf land for rent and pledge.
- Search for information on waqf.
- Publication of required reports.
- Allocation of waqf income.
It ensures that the waqf property can optimize its development. This training aims to help manage, coordinate, and gather the resources of the waqf to make the resources of economic capital with high potential for the benefit of Muslims. Its creation also aims to guarantee that the collection of waqf resources is compatible with the obligations of Muslim waqf jurisprudence.
The Administrator must be able to collect and generate waqf funds on a large scale, and across borders to obtain more significant and more holistic benefits for the community. The waqf’s management can also be carried out more transparently and responsibly, with planning and development vision thanks to a centralized structure and managed by a professional and expert group.
THE ROLE OF A CODE OF ETHICS IN WAQF MANAGEMENT
A code of ethics is a declaration of principles and a set of rules of conduct to be used to guide the behavior of people working in a waqf institution. It includes values, norms, and mores that formally and indicate whether an action is right or wrong, good or bad, which should be done or avoided. Thus, a code of ethics becomes a guideline issued by an institution for its employees, management, and consultants to help them carry out their actions following initial values and ethical standards.
The formation of a code of ethics for a waqf institution is crucial, as it has a significant impact on kindness and mutual benefit at the level of the individual, organization, and society as a whole.
The function of a Muslim code of ethics is to promote awareness and remind Muslims of their responsibility as Vicar of Allah (Exalted be He), responsible for making the world prosper.
A Muslim who truly understands the concept of istikhlaf (devotion and confidence-building on “Al-Amana”) believes that he is the creation of Allah (Exalted be He), working on the land that belongs to Allah (Exalted be He), by the energy given by Him and with the tools granted by Him. The work carried out follows the natural methods created by Allah (Exalted be He). If he profits from it, then it is the treasure of Allah (Exalted be He), and it belongs to Him. Human is only the holder of trust who has the power to benefit from it. “(Sheikh Al Qaradawi)
The values of faith, stipulated in the code of ethics, allow people who manage the waqf to believe in responsibility.
They also lead to the implementation and understanding of other virtues and values , such as integrity. Integrity encompasses trust, honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, responsibility, and loyalty. Confidence includes faith in Allah (Exalted be He) as well as belief in oneself, knowledge, property, and skills possessed. Responsibility is not only limited to the leader but especially to Allah (Exalted be He). When this integrity is fully understood, it creates a border of self that prevents the commission of an offense contrary to Muslim jurisprudence, common law, and ethics.
In the context of the waqf institution, the awareness of this responsibility has significant implications for the thoughts and work style of the staff. Despite their ability to determine the direction of their action, their behavior, and their thought, they will also ensure that the waqf trust entrusted to them is not betrayed, is well managed, and that the profits generated by the waqf property benefit the waqf beneficiaries.
A complete apprehension regarding the Muslim code of ethics produces a balanced individual, both physically and spiritually, for success in this world and the hereafter, including relationships between humans and God, between humans themselves and between humans and the environment.
Values such as commitment, transparency, professionalism, integrity, respect, and wisdom are contained in the code of ethics demonstrate a commitment to this issue. Awareness of these values produces not only quality and also excellent employees in waqf management institutions with rewards in material form, but also, more importantly, it brings staff closer to Allah (Exalted be He ). Each work is directly linked to Allah (Exalted be He) to be considered as an “ibadah” (an act of worship) and pious actions to which a reward is promised in the afterlife. The result of the work is also guaranteed to be of quality, efficient, compatible with the wish of the founder of the waqf, and responding to the needs and the need of beneficiaries.
This question conforms to the requirements of Islam, which encourages every Muslim to strive to fulfill his duty in the best way only for Allah (Exalted be He).
A balance between work and worship
Allah (Exalted be He) said:
But seek, with the (wealth) that God has granted you, the House of the Hereafter, and do not forget your part in this world: but do yourself good, as God was good for you, and do not seek (opportunities for) evil in the country: for God does not love those who do evil. (Quran 28, verse 77)
- discipline respecting the rules
- and discipline in the use of time.
Discipline in following all instructions, rules, and regulations while working is essential. All acts must be legal from Muslim jurisprudence, following the law, without any negligence, any infidelity or anything sinful and harmful. The work can be completed without any supervision. A Muslim always feels and believes that Allah (Exalted be He) observes him and his deeds, wherever they are. Therefore, you have to be attached to your work, do it to the best of your ability, take the initiative to improve your quality of work, and avoid moral offense. The ability to control oneself from committing prohibited acts without others seeing or knowing is the true meaning of discipline. Allah (Exalted be He) says:
And say, “Work, for Allah will see your work, as will His messenger and the believers, and you will be brought back to Him who knows the invisible and the visible well. Then He will inform you of what you were doing. ” (Koran 9, verse 105)
Discipline in the use of time is also essential. Those people disciplined are too wise in the application and effective management of time, as suggested in Surat al-`Asr. Excellent and effective time management is the basis for instilling a positive attitude among staff. It helps to complete tasks quickly, efficiently, and promptly. It will also avoid work pressure, which can discourage commitment and quality of work.
These two forms of discipline imply that it will create global discipline. In the context of the institution of waqf, discipline is a very crucial aspect of ensuring that all matters concerning the institution of waqf can be carried out following the specified procedures, rules, and working instructions, and can be implemented following to specifications and time. The values of integrity, punctuality, transparency, respect, commitment, and professionalism within a code of ethics contribute to the training of a highly disciplined person from behavior and conduct at work. The management aspect of waqf and the development of waqf ownership will be done efficiently, quickly, and precisely. Consequently, the problems of delay and slowness in the management of waqf will no longer arise.
In the context of the waqf institution, when each member of staff obeys and applies the trained code of ethics, a culture of ethical work can be achieved. Starting from the formation of the attitude, perception, and work style of the individual, it also influences the management style of the institution. This includes the aspect of understanding the work philosophy in Islam, the attitude towards work and duty, responsibility as a servant and vicar of Allah (Exalted be He), leadership style, decision-making approaches, work procedure, communication networks, motivation channel, implementation strategy and direction of the institution itself.
In the context of waqf management, for example, obedience to values such as responsibility, punctuality, commitment, professionalism, and transparency, will encourage staff to ensure that asset management issues of waqf are coordinated at a high level.
The importance of a code of ethics to be applied by the institutions involved in the management of waqf is demonstrated. Its implementation is not only capable of producing a disciplined, balanced staff who fulfills the role of a vicar on this earth, but it also improves the function of the waqf institution through a culture of ethical work.
The awareness of the essentiality of this code of ethics is then manifested through action.
Its implementation must follow the formation of a code of ethics.
Also, the management of the institution must demonstrate its commitment to the code of ethics by showing examples of practice, and by interpreting it creatively in daily work practice. The culture of counseling and positive feedback about each other can reduce unethical behavior and encourage them to be fair. Thus, a positive and conducive working environment can be achieved in the effort to cultivate an ethical culture within the institution.